The formation and morphology of amber
Flat polished transparent amber piece with a one slightly convex plane with internal icicle (micro-icicle). There are fragments of unpolished natural peel

Amber is considered older than 1 million years excavated resin, without any crystallographic features. Since ancient times only the Baltic amber was known as genuine amber which contains 3-8 % of succinic acid, formed of a certain type of pine (Pinus succinifera) and called succinite. Since there were discovered other fossil resins containing succinic acid, today to specify the type of amber, the area in which it is found is added. For instance, amber of Siberia, amber of Borneo, amber of New Jersey, amber of Dominica, etc. There are more than 200 types of amber known worldwide and more and more is being discovered every year.

The Baltic amber formed in the Eocene period 55-40 million years ago. Climate warming stimulated the resin leak of amber trees Pinus succinifera. The prevalence of amber trees was common to the range of the Southern and Central Scandinavia and the present day regions of the Baltic Sea. In Poland, Belarus and Ukraine the places where amber was found formed more subsequently. These territories are known as secondary amber clusters.
Resin was mainly modified in the soil of amber forests due to a complex of physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The largest stratum of the Baltic amber lies in the peninsula of Sambia (Russian Federation) in so-called Blue ground. One cubic meter of sediment contains up to 3.5 kilograms of amber.

Composition of amber: 80 % of carbon, 10% of oxygen, 10 % of hydrogen; 3750C is the melting temperature of amber; Amber hardness on Mohs scale of mineral hardness: 2-2.5; Baltic amber comparative weight ranges from 1.05 to 1.096 grams;

Morphological varieties of amber are divided into internal and surface. Internal morphological forms include timber, subcortical and cortical resin lenses. Surface morphological forms of amber include amber icicles, drops, stem and soil amber.

Palanga Amber Museum exhibits pieces of amber weighing from several grams up to three kilograms. The largest one is called Sun Stone, weighing 3524 grams. One of the largest pieces of Baltic amber in the world is preserved by the Museum of Natural History in Berlin and weighs 9817 grams.
The colour of Baltic amber depends on its structure and the conditions under which it formed. The main colour is bright yellow which may vary from a light yellow to brownish or even pink tones. Fundamentally amber colour and transparency impacts its structural elements such as terpentic gas bubbles and also their density of distribution. The more gas bubbles there are the less transparent and whiter amber is. For example, amber in colour, similar to the ivory whiteness, has up to 900 thousand gas bubbles per cubic millimetre.

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